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Solar Roads With Rain Water Conservation

As discussed earlier, the Concept is to Generate Electricity via Solar Energy & also to Conserve the Maximum Rain Water for Useful Purpose.

So below image describes, how actually the Idea (Concept) looks like,

After Implementation of Solar Panels above Roads, We’ll be able to Generate Huge Amount of Electricity &

Since Roads are present in Every City & Connects Every City,

So there will be enough Electricity for each Area of a Country.

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Posted by on June 30, 2014 in RENEWABLE ENERGY

 

Advantages of Solar Panels Above Road

Advantages :-

  1. By building Solar Roof on 2 Lane Road, a Power of around 3560 MWh per KM per Year will be Generated, & if number of lanes increases, Output Power will also Increase.
  2. On the same Road, we can collect around 9,75,360 Liters of Rain Water per KM, with 100mm of Rainfall (Average Rainfall in INDIA) & if we consider 700 Liters of Water for an Average Family than around 1400 Families per KM, can be supplied with Enough Water Supply.
  3. In any city, around 10-38% of electricity is supplied for Street Lights, which can be saved, as those advertisement panels will be enough to lighten up the streets, & that 10-38% electricity can be used for supplying electricity to residential or industrial places.
  4. By saving that 10-38% of electricity production, we can save burning of coal or other fuel, which is used for production of electricity, hence we can somehow overcome with the issue of carbon emission, pollution, & helps in saving environment.
  5. These Solar Roof on Roads will be WIN-WIN situation for all 3 sectors of any area/city/country, those are Government, Advertisers (Private Companies) & Public,
    Government :- They have to raise Minimum Funds, as there is NO Requirement of Land Acquisition (as roads are already under there control), & also Major Funds will be provided by the Advertisers (Companies) for Advertisement on side of the road, which helps them to generate Free Electricity, Save Rain Water & also supplying 24×7 Lighting on the Road (will be replacement of street lights).
    Advertisers (Companies) :- They get there Product Marketed 24×7 via Advertisement Panels on Side of Road & also very close to Public.
    Public :- They Receive Shade while moving on the road &, they will receive Ample Amount of Electricity & Water Supply.
  6. It helps in Saving the Other Lands, which is currently used by Advertisers (Companies), where they have placed there Advertisement Hoardings via frames/poles.
  7. These solar roofs on road will be used in Every Season, say in Summer, Rainy & Winters.
  8. It also Protects roads from Over-Heating, as there would be NO direct sunlight on road.
  9. As entire road is covered with these panels, so people can travel via 2-wheeler & avoid 4-wheeler, in all seasons, which helps them in Saving – Fuel, Time, Traffic Jams & Pollution, like,
    In SUMMER – There would be NO direct sunlight,
    In RAINY season – They Won’t Get Wet due to rain, while traveling.
  10. In Rainy Season, these panels are used to Collect the rain water, which helps to Save & Utilize the Rain Water More Efficiently.
  11. As these solar panels covers the entire road, which protect road from getting damaged due to excessive water collection on road in rainy season.
  12. It helps in providing the Anti-Slippery Surface (in rainy & winter season) on road, which avoids Accidents.
  13. In winter, as there is shade on road, so the impact of FOG is less as compared to other open areas, which gives quite clear visibility, so possibility of accidents would be less.
  14. When the FOG deposited above the solar panels melts & becomes water, we will be able to collect that water also, due to rain water collector system.
  15. These solar panels not only covers the city roads but also can be placed at society level roads also, like the roads within society, which helps in reducing the electricity bills of the society homes & also helps in saving the rainwater for society.
  16. As now, everywhere residential building are very high & adjacent to each other, so the space at the Top (Terrace), gap between 2 buildings can utilized by placing solar panels between them, which saves electricity & rainwater for both buildings.
  17. As Future are of Electrical Vehicles, so these panels would also helps charging those vehicle on their way to destination, by building charging stations like Current Refueling stations.
  18. These Solar Panels can be placed anywhere above the ground, the places which are already been used, for example – above the railway tracks, metro tracks, parking lots, Society walkways, in between the two buildings gap (terrace), etc. which helps in generation of electricity as well as saving the rain water.

 

Those advertisement panels majorly solves the 3 purposes,

  • It lighten the roads, which saves the electricity used by street lights & that electricity can be used anywhere else like in homes, industries, etc.,
  • It also helps in Fighting with Crime, as there will be NO Dark Shade/Place on roads, & also public will be able to identify criminals more precisely under completely lighted roads.
  • Those advertisement panels at divider of roads (More Height w.r.t Width of those panels), also helps in avoiding the direct light from other side vehicle (Headlight) into the eyes of the opposite side driver, which makes driving more easily & helps in overcoming the road accidents.

 

 
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Posted by on June 30, 2014 in RENEWABLE ENERGY

 

Funds for Solar Roads – Advertisements

        As we know, Solar Power is a Clean & Free Energy Source, but still its not Implemented to it Full Extents, i.e. Not Everywhere,

Since the Major Issue with Solar Energy is its Land RequirementInitial Installation Cost, which is Really Very High,So the Solution for Land Requirements is ROADS, which is available in Plenty & also Covers the whole Country& the solution for FUNDS are Advertisements,

As stated in Idea, There will be Multiple Advertisements on Roads (Side Lane Road & Road Divider), which cover the Major Cost of Installation of Solar Panels above the Road.

If 1 Meter (Width) Advertisement Boards are Provided to Advertisers & Height of those boards can be any, either 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Meter or Above, than around 4000 Advertisers can advertise in 1 KM Road,& hence the total Installation cost will be divided by 4000, which helps in reducing cost for Individual Advertisers to advertise on Roads.

So, FUNDS by Advertisers, Solves the Issue of High Installation Cost, & Hence Solar Panels Can be Installed Easily on Roads.

 
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Posted by on June 30, 2014 in RENEWABLE ENERGY

 

REQUIREMENTS OF OVERHEAD LINE RAILWAY CROSSING

  1. ANGLE OF CROSSING
    The overhead line crossing shall normally be at right angle to the railway track. In special case a deviation up to 30° may be permitted by the Railway authorities.

  2. LOCATION OF TOWER
    Only “C” type tower on either side of the Railway track are permitted to be used. The towers are to be located at minimum required distance from centre of the nearest railway track shall not be less than the actual height of the tower in Meters above normal ground level plus 6 Meters.

  3. CROSSING SPAN
    The railway crossing span shall be restricted to 300 meters or 80% of the normal span for which the structures are designed, whichever is less.

  4. TYPE OF INSULATION
    A double tension insulator string shall be used in crossing span in conjunction with a yoke plate where necessary. Each tension insulator string shall have one insulator more than the no. of units used in normal over head lines. The F.O.S. of each string of insulators under the worst conditions shall not be less than 2.

  5. FOUNDATION OF RAILWAY CROSSING TOWERS
    Foundation of Railway crossing towers should be in accordance with water table and soil encountered at these locations. The classification of foundations for such towers should be done cautiously keeping in view safety considerations.

  6. EARTHING
    (a) Each tower on either side of railway crossing span shall be earthed effectively by two separate and distinct earthing and connections. At least one separate earth electrode shall be provided for each earth connection.
    (b) Where the earth resistance of the independent tower is higher than 10 ohms, the counterpoise earthing shall be provided as per requirement of Railways. The method of earthing the towers for crossing span shall also be approved by the Railways.

  7. JOINTS IN CROSSING SPAN
    No joints in conductors or earthwire (s) shall be permitted, in crossing span.

  8. ANTI-CLIMBING DEVICES AND WARNING NOTICES
    The supporting structures on railways land shall be provided with anti climbing devices. Besides, suitable caution/warning notices shall be erected on all such structures in such languages as may be prescribed for the purpose. The anti climbing devices and the caution/warning notices shall be approved by the Railway.

  9. NO INTERFERENCE WITH RAILWAY COMMUNICATION LINES
    The crossing shall in no way interfere with or endanger railway communication lines and approval given by the Railways to the placing of any crossing shall not be construed to compromise or reduce in any way the requirements of Indian Posts & Telegraphs Department for the protection of communication lines.

  10. FACTOR OF SAFETY
    The factor of safety of all structures, conductors, guards and ground wires used in the crossing shell be as stipulated in the Indian Electricity Rules 1956 (as amended in November 1984) and the relevant code of practice.
     

MINIMUM CLEARANCE BETWEEN THE OVERHEAD LINE & RAILWAY TRACK & RAILWAY STRUCTURES ETC.

1. Clearances Over the Track
(i) Minimum height above rail level of the lowest portion of any conductor of a crossing, including guard wire, under, conditions of maximum sag shall be as follows:

S. No.

Voltages

Broad, Meter & Narrow gauges

1.

up to and including 11 kV

Normally by Cable

2.

Above 11 kV & up to 66kV

14.10 Meters

3.

Above 66 kV & up to 132 kV

14.60 Meters

4.

Above 132 kV & up to 220 kV

15.40 Meters

5.

Above 220 kV & 400 kV

17.90 Meters

 

(ii) No overhead line crossing shall be located over a booster transformer, traction switching station, traction Substation or a track cabin location in an electrified area. structures, the height above the rail level of the highest high tension line shall be taken into account for calculating the clearances.

 

2. Clearances From The Traction Mast or Structure
The distance between any of the crossing conductors and the nearest traction mast or structure under the most adverse conditions shall not be less than 5 meters.

 

3. Minimum Vertical Clearance Between Power Line Crossings
The minimum vertical clearances to be maintained between any of the Railways power line crossings at the same or at different voltages shall be as specified in Rule 37 of the Indian Electricity Rules 1956 (As amended up to November 1984).

 

4. Minimum Clearance Between Highest Traction Conductor And Lowest Crossing Conductor
Minimum clearances between the highest traction conductor and the lowest crossing conductor shall be maintained, as per details given in the following table :

 

Voltage

Broad, meter & Narrow gauge (in Meters)

up to & including 33-kV

4.44

Above 33 kV & up to and including 66 kV

4.44

Above 66 kV and up to 110 kV

4.75

For 110 kV and 132 kV

5.05

For 220 kV

6.58

For 400 kV

9.71

RAILWAY BLOCK AND CHARGES ETC.

Once the site has been inspected by Railway Electrical Inspector and approval accorded by Railway authorities, necessary charges for Railway Block and other service charges, if any, may be deposited with Railways. The stringing of Railway crossing section is to be planned in advance as soon as stringing of line is commenced. The date and time for stringing the Railway crossing section shall have to be fixed well in advance with Railway authorities concerned to obtain Railway Block as mutually agreed. Presence of railway staff and railway inspector shall also has to be ensured while carrying out stringing in crossing span from safety considerations.

 

 
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Posted by on May 31, 2014 in RENEWABLE ENERGY

 

Hot Water Recirculation System- An Innovation In Solar Thermal

MODUPALLI

How much energy is wasted?

I wanted  to pass on my experience with our hot water recirculation system, and some measurements on how much energy it wastes.

These systems are designed to get hot water instantly even at faucets distant from the hot water tank, but they can be VERY wasteful if not very carefully designed and implemented.

Background

Homes, Hotels Hospitals with long plumbing runs from the hot water tank to the places where the water is used can have a long wait for hot water.  You turn the hot water tap on, and a minute later it’s still running cold.  This wastes both water and energy, and is an inconvenience.

To overcome this problem, a water recirculation system can be added.  These systems overcome the problem by keeping the water in the hot water supply pipe hot, so that when you turn the tap on, you get instant…

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Posted by on May 20, 2014 in RENEWABLE ENERGY

 

Hot Water Recirculation System- An Innovation In Solar Thermal

How much energy is wasted?

I wanted  to pass on my experience with our hot water recirculation system, and some measurements on how much energy it wastes.

These systems are designed to get hot water instantly even at faucets distant from the hot water tank, but they can be VERY wasteful if not very carefully designed and implemented.

Background

Homes, Hotels Hospitals with long plumbing runs from the hot water tank to the places where the water is used can have a long wait for hot water.  You turn the hot water tap on, and a minute later it’s still running cold.  This wastes both water and energy, and is an inconvenience.

To overcome this problem, a water recirculation system can be added.  These systems overcome the problem by keeping the water in the hot water supply pipe hot, so that when you turn the tap on, you get instant hot water.

There are several kinds of systems. The mostly used systems are described hereunder.

One type runs an extra water pipe out to the farthest water using fixture you have.  This extra pipe allows water to be circulated from the hot water tank, out through the hot water supply pipe, and then back the extra pipe to the water heater.  In this way the water in the supply pipe is always hot.

Most of these systems use a pump to circulate water, but passive circulation is also possible.

The pumps are controlled in various ways:

  • They can run 24/7
  • They can be on a timer so that the pump is only running when people might want hot water.
  • They can be run on a thermostat that only runs the pump when the water temperature in the pipe cools below a certain point.
  • They can be set up to only run the pump when the person who wants water “requests” it.  The “request” can be pushing a button to indicate that someone is going to use hot water soon,
  • They can be a motion sensors that turn the pumps on when people are in the bathroom.

 Image

As expected, these systems use (waste) different amounts of energy.   The energy waste is of two types:

  • Electricity used to run the pump.  For a modest sized pump, this might be 400 to 800 KWH a year if the pump runs all the time.It depends on pump size & plumbing layout.
  • Heat loss from the pipe.  Whenever the two pipes are hot, they will be losing heat.  This heat comes from the hot water tank, and the water heater must use more fuel to provide the heat.  The heat loss is significant even if the pipes are insulated.  During the winter, this heat may help to heat house.  Or, it may not, depending on how the pipe is routed.  This added heat may be a benefit in the winter, but it will also add heat to house in the summer, which will just make it hotter, and may result in higher AC bills.How Much Energy is Wasted? It is vary system to system.
  • The ones that run a pump 24/7 obviously waste more heat and electricity.  The ones that work off a timer or thermostat would save some of this waste, but not nearly all of it.
  • The “demand” systems would be much more efficient, since they only circulate water when its actually needed.
  • The estimated the energy waste for recirculation by measuring the amount of energy water heater uses with and without the recirculation loop enabled.  With the recirculation system by thumb rule 50 % extra energy wasted per year
  • To calculate the heat wasted ,measure the lengths of pipe with sizes. Calculate the volume of water in pipe lines. Calculate number of cycles set through timer per day or check the recirculation startup & shunt down time in case of thermostat based system. Then wastage of heat is =Volume of water in pipeline X number of cycles per day X Temp diff

Recommendations:

If it is a new house, try and avoid any need for recirculation systems at all.  Try to locate the hot water using fixtures as close to the hot water heater as possible.  Using a “Home Run” plumbing system will also help greatly to minimize the wait for hot water and the waste of water.

 If you are going to use a recirculation system,  use an efficient one.  The demand style systems will waste far less energy than the other types of systems.  The demand systems may cost a bit more, and may be a little less convenient to use, but the saving in energy and greenhouse gas emissions are well worth it.  While these systems still lose all the energy used to heat the water left in the supply pipe after using hot water, they at least don’t keep reheating the water in the pipes constantly, and they don’t constantly waste electricity to run the circulation pump.

 Even if you don’t use a recirculation system, or use the more efficient on demand system, you will still waste the energy that went into heating the water in the line out to the far fixture every time you use hot water.  This water just gets left in the pipe and cools down to house or crawl space temperature

The only way to avoid this energy waste is to locate the hot water tank near the fixtures, and use the Home Run system mentioned to minimize the water volume in the pipes. 

 

 
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Posted by on May 20, 2014 in RENEWABLE ENERGY

 

State wise Solar Feed-In-Tariffs (FIT) in India along with state specific RPO applicability & Highlights on Tamil Nadu Solar Policy 2012 | Andhra Pradesh Solar Policy 2012 | Madhya Pradesh Solar Policy 2012 & Uttar Pradesh Solar Policy 2012

One after other many Indian States are coming out with their specific state solar policies & Incentives. Recently on 20th October’12 Tamil Nadu also announced its ‘Tamil Nadu solar energy policy 2012’. Earlier many more states like Andhra Pradesh too have come out with Andhra Pradesh Solar Policy 2012, Madhya Pradesh with MP Solar policy 2012, Uttar Pradesh with their own Uttar Pradesh Solar Power Policy 2012…Of all of the state solar policies, needless to say that Gujarat is leading the way with Gujarat Solar Policy for Phase I & Phase II with already more than 700+ MW installed Solar Power Projects !

Below I have tried to highlight some of the important features of all the above mentioned and recently announced solar polices in India in 2012. Also attached is the chart of solar tariffs across various states in India along with the applicability of state specific Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPO)..

Tamil Nadu Solar Policy:

The State of Tamil Nadu on 20th October 2012 unveiled  “Tamil Nadu Solar Energy Policy 2012” with an aim to produce 3000 MW from solar energy in next 3 Years by 2015. Some of the salient features of the policy are :

  • The policy hopes to generate 1000 MW each year till 2015.
  • The Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency will act as the single window clearance agency for solar power projects in the state. An Empowered Committee comprising Chief Secretary, Finance Secretary, Energy Secretary, CMD-TANGEDCO, CMD-Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency – Member Secretary and TANGEDCO technical member will accord project clearances for the establishment of solar power projects in the state
  • The policy also involves large-scale power consumers into the initiative by mandating six per cent SPO (Solar Purchase Obligation) on them from.
  • The state would make it compulsory for high tension power consumers like special economic zones (SEZ), industries, IT parks, telecom towers, colleges and residential schools and buildings with built up area of 20,000 square metre or more to purchase 6 % solar power from Jan 2014 (starting with 3% till December 2013 and 6% from January 2014) for the. The SPO would  be administered by TANGEDCO (Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Ltd).
  • The 3000 MW of Solar Power will be achieved through Utility Scale Projects, Rooftops, and under REC mechanism as follows :

Image

  • In utility scale out of 1500 MW, 1000 MW will be funded through SPO and balance 500 MW through Generation Based Incentive (GBI) provided by the government.
  • Solar parks with a capacity of 50 MW each will be developed in 24 districts across the state. Solar parks may comprise 250 MW in sizes of 1 to 5 MW, 600 MW in sizes of 5 to 10 MW and 650 MW of sizes above 10 MW. Solar Power projects will be developed through competitive/reverse bidding.
  • Exemption from electricity tax, tax concessions, exemption from demand cut to those who produce solar power from their rooftop, used for self-consumption/sale to utility will be allowed for 5 years.
  • Solar power projects would be developed through competitive bidding. Investments through  joint ventures by state undertakings will also encouraged through competitive bidding
  • The policy also promotes solar rooftops in domestic and government buildings. As for the domestic rooftop, a GBI of Rs 2/Unit for the first two years, Re 1/Unit for next two years and 50 Paisa/Unit for subsequent two years will be provided for all solar or solar-wind hybrid rooftops being installed & commissioned before March 31, 2014.
  • The state government, in all its new buildings, will provide solar rooftops, while all existing buildings will be provided solar panels in a phased manner. The government will also promote net metering to promote rooftop penetration.
  • Street lighting and drinking water distribution would be managed gradually through solar energy in local body and government buildings.
  • The government would also be energising over one lakh street lights through solar energy by 2015-16 and water supply installations in local bodies will be energized through solar power phase wise.
  • As per the policy, installation of solar water heating systems would be made mandatory for industries having hot water boiler/steam boiler using fossil fuel.

Also attached below is the chart of solar tariffs across various states in India along with the applicability of state RPO’s.

solar-tariff

Andhra Pradesh Solar Policy:

The government of Andhra Pradesh has recently announced its State Solar Policy on 26th September’12. The below mentioned incentives are applicable only if the project is commissioned by June 2014.

Following are some important policy highlights & Incentives offered :

  • 100% banking is permitted from January to December of the year.
  • The Banking Charges will be 2 %
  • Banked units can not be adjusted during February to June and during evening peak hours 6.30 PM to 10.30 PM.
  • Sale to third party, captive consumption allowed (both inter-state and intra-state)
  • State DISCOMs will support APPC+REC model
  • For all the intra-state open access transactions (through 33kV system), wheeling and transmission charges are exempted. (for Captive / Third Party Sale )
  • No Cross Subsidy Surcharge for Open-Access Transactions made by Solar developers. This will be a great relief for consumers as CSS remains the major cause of worry for consumers as well as developers opting for third-party sale / open access.
  • Electricity Duty is also exempted for all the solar power projects opting for third party sale and/or captive usage.
  • Refund of VAT by Commercial Department for all the good used for Solar developers
  • Captive Co-Located projects will also be eligible for REC
  • Faster power evacuation approval from TRANSCO/DISCOM – Within 21 days.
  • Refund of Stamp duty and registration charges paid for land purchase
  • Projects availing all these benefits can also claim REC benefits however solar project developers participating into REC mechanism might not be able to claim all the benefits that are proposed under the State solar policy.

Madhya Pradesh Solar Policy (MP Solar Policy):

The State of Madhya Pradesh has come out with its Solar Policy 2012. There will be four categories of Solar Projects covered under the policy :

 

 

Madhya Pradesh Solar Policy (MP Solar Policy )

Category I Category II Category III Category IV
Projects selected as per the competitive bidding process for selling power to MP Discoms / MP Power Management Company – Capacity as per RPO targets Specified by MPERC which I have mentioned in above table Projects set up for captive use or sale of power to 3rd party within or outside the state or for sale of power to other states through open access – Unlimited Capacity Projects set up under Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) mode – Unlimited Capacity Projects under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission – As per JNNSM guidelines
  •  The solar policy additionally imposed a 10-year exemption in electricity fees and a 4% subsidy by the state government for wheeling charges and banking of generated power and exemption, as per rules in VAT and entry tax.

Uttar Pradesh Solar Policy  (UP Solar Policy):

The state of Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) in  August 2012 has published a draft solar policy ‘The Uttar Pradesh Solar Power Policy 2012′. The target it to reach 1GW of installed capacity of SPP in the state by March 2017.

Salient features of draft policy:

  • The U.P. solar policy removes wheeling charges for all grid connected solar power projects.
  • Policy to remain valid up to March 31, 2017 and aims to achieve 1000 MW of solar power of capacity addition till then
 Phase  Period Total target capacity
(MW)
I 2012-2013
II 2013-2014 150
III 2014-2015 300
IV 2015-2016 300
V 2016-2017 250
Total 1000
  • Grid connected solar power projects are divided into 3 sub categories: Small (2-10 MW), Medium (10-25 MW) and Large (> 25 MW).
  • The developers will have option to sell power to distribution licensee/utility on tariff based competitive bidding, subject to approval by UPERC or at Average Pool Price under REC Mechanism
  • Policy allows for sale of electricity to a 3rd party at a mutually agreed price.
  • Policy offers various incentives to developers like exemption from transmission/ wheeling and open access charges for 3rdparty use and captive units.
  • Single window clearance system i.e. The nodal agency, the UPNEDA, will be the single window of clearance for all solar power projects under the policy
  • Exemption from electricity duty on energy consumed by developers for its own use
  • Facilitation in land allotment by state nodal agency etc.
  • Also , provision of Letter of Credit and Default Escrow Account will be provided in the PPAs to be signed by the Discom/STU.
  • Solar Parks at appropriate locations in the state would be created on PPP basis.

Meanwhile Delhi is also coming out with their roof top solar power program soon. Let’s see how many of the above policies would be implemented successful in future ;)

With all the above policies and programs announced do you think Gujarat would stay quite ! Off- Course not –  Yes, Gujarat again leading the way has come out and have called for RFP from interested developers under Roof Top Photovoltaic Program for solar power plants of 5 MW each to be implemented at Rajkot and Mehsana City.

Also now all eyes are on the Solar Projects that are to be installed and commissioned under JNNSM Phase I. Let’s see how many of them crosses the finish line

 
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Posted by on October 24, 2013 in RENEWABLE ENERGY